african-history:

Ana Nzinga of Ndongo
In 1624, Ana Nzinga inherited rule of Ndongo, a state to the east of Luanda in modern day Angola, populated primarily by Mbundu peoples. At that moment, the kingdom was under attack from both Portuguese as well as neighboring African aggressors. Nzinga realized that, to remain viable, Ndongo had to reposition itself as an intermediary rather than a supply zone in the slave trade. To achieve this, she allied Ndongo with Portugal, simultaneously acquiring a partner in its fight against its African enemies and ending Portuguese slave raiding in the kingdom. Ana Nzinga’s baptism, with the Portuguese colonial governor serving as godfather, sealed this relationship.
By 1626, however, Portugal had betrayed Ndongo, and Nzinga was forced to flee with her people further west, where they founded a new state at Matamba, well beyond the reach of the Portuguese. To bolster Matamba’s martial power, Nzinga offered sanctuary to runaway slaves and Portuguese-trained African soldiers and adopted a form of military organization known as kilombo, in which youths renounced family ties and were raised communally in militias. She also fomented rebellion within Ndongo itself, which was now governed indirectly by the Portuguese through a puppet ruler.
Nzinga found an ally in the Netherlands, which seized Luanda for its own mercantile purposes in 1641. Their combined forces were insufficient to drive the Portuguese out of Angola, however, and after Luanda was reclaimed by the Portuguese, Nzinga was again forced to retreat to Matamba. From this point on, Nzinga focused on developing Matamba as a trading power by capitalizing on its position as the gateway to the Central African interior.
By the time of her death in 1661, Matamba was a formidable commercial state that dealt with the Portuguese colony on an equal footing. Nzinga, who reconverted to Christianity before her death at the age of eighty-one, became a sensation in Europe following the 1769 publication of Jean-Louis Castilhon’s colorful “biography,” Zingha, Reine d’Angola, in Paris.
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African HistoryReblogged from African History

african-history:

Ana Nzinga of Ndongo

In 1624, Ana Nzinga inherited rule of Ndongo, a state to the east of Luanda in modern day Angola, populated primarily by Mbundu peoples. At that moment, the kingdom was under attack from both Portuguese as well as neighboring African aggressors. Nzinga realized that, to remain viable, Ndongo had to reposition itself as an intermediary rather than a supply zone in the slave trade. To achieve this, she allied Ndongo with Portugal, simultaneously acquiring a partner in its fight against its African enemies and ending Portuguese slave raiding in the kingdom. Ana Nzinga’s baptism, with the Portuguese colonial governor serving as godfather, sealed this relationship.

By 1626, however, Portugal had betrayed Ndongo, and Nzinga was forced to flee with her people further west, where they founded a new state at Matamba, well beyond the reach of the Portuguese. To bolster Matamba’s martial power, Nzinga offered sanctuary to runaway slaves and Portuguese-trained African soldiers and adopted a form of military organization known as kilombo, in which youths renounced family ties and were raised communally in militias. She also fomented rebellion within Ndongo itself, which was now governed indirectly by the Portuguese through a puppet ruler.

Nzinga found an ally in the Netherlands, which seized Luanda for its own mercantile purposes in 1641. Their combined forces were insufficient to drive the Portuguese out of Angola, however, and after Luanda was reclaimed by the Portuguese, Nzinga was again forced to retreat to Matamba. From this point on, Nzinga focused on developing Matamba as a trading power by capitalizing on its position as the gateway to the Central African interior.

By the time of her death in 1661, Matamba was a formidable commercial state that dealt with the Portuguese colony on an equal footing. Nzinga, who reconverted to Christianity before her death at the age of eighty-one, became a sensation in Europe following the 1769 publication of Jean-Louis Castilhon’s colorful “biography,” Zingha, Reine d’Angola, in Paris.

african-history:

Muhammad Ali Pasha, an Albanian born in Macedonia during Ottoman rule there, served in the Kavala Volunteer Contingent of the Ottoman Army in Egypt during the first years of the 19th century. Following the withdrawal of Napoleon’s armies from Egypt Muhammad, through a long series of political maneuvering, came to be elected Wali (governor) of Ottoman Egypt, a position he would eventually use to secure Egypt as his own personal domain as Mamluk power waned.
During his reign he instituted a series of more or less popular, and more or less successful, reforms, all aiming to transform Egypt into a modern, European-style, state. Among other things he constructed a shipyard in Alexandria, brought much of Egypt’s farmland under direct state control, and sent missions to Europe to collect and bring western knowledge and technology to Egypt. 
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African HistoryReblogged from African History

african-history:

Muhammad Ali Pasha, an Albanian born in Macedonia during Ottoman rule there, served in the Kavala Volunteer Contingent of the Ottoman Army in Egypt during the first years of the 19th century. Following the withdrawal of Napoleon’s armies from Egypt Muhammad, through a long series of political maneuvering, came to be elected Wali (governor) of Ottoman Egypt, a position he would eventually use to secure Egypt as his own personal domain as Mamluk power waned.

During his reign he instituted a series of more or less popular, and more or less successful, reforms, all aiming to transform Egypt into a modern, European-style, state. Among other things he constructed a shipyard in Alexandria, brought much of Egypt’s farmland under direct state control, and sent missions to Europe to collect and bring western knowledge and technology to Egypt. 

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The High Cotton Project is an abstract examination of the horrors of chattel slavery in the southeastern United States. In this project, stunning visual analogies will be sculpted and fabricated to convey the horrific, irreparable psychological damage that has resulted from the economic blueprint of the plantation.
This project requires intense community cooperation. Participants will be asked to meet at a location, agree to have his/her head shaven completely bald and have a photograph taken by a professional photographer after the hair is removed. Both the shaven hair and the portraits of the volunteers will then be used in a gallery space as part of the abstract art installation. A video camera will also be present to document each individual cutting session. The footage of each session will be used as material to produce a short film.
The intended result is that each participant becomes a walking memorial such that the stationary art installation then transforms itself into a collective of living monuments that represent remembrance, healing and defiance. 
The dates, times and locations of the photo sessions will be announced on October 31, 2013. These photo sessions will continue every weekend in Crown Heights, Brooklyn from the announced date up until March 31, 2014. 
For inquiries, send an email to highcottonproject@gmail.com
    or https://www.facebook.com/highcottonproject
 
Thank you,
 
David Booker Ogunde High-res

The High Cotton Project is an abstract examination of the horrors of chattel slavery in the southeastern United States. In this project, stunning visual analogies will be sculpted and fabricated to convey the horrific, irreparable psychological damage that has resulted from the economic blueprint of the plantation.

This project requires intense community cooperation. Participants will be asked to meet at a location, agree to have his/her head shaven completely bald and have a photograph taken by a professional photographer after the hair is removed. Both the shaven hair and the portraits of the volunteers will then be used in a gallery space as part of the abstract art installation. A video camera will also be present to document each individual cutting session. The footage of each session will be used as material to produce a short film.

The intended result is that each participant becomes a walking memorial such that the stationary art installation then transforms itself into a collective of living monuments that represent remembrance, healing and defiance. 

The dates, times and locations of the photo sessions will be announced on October 31, 2013. These photo sessions will continue every weekend in Crown Heights, Brooklyn from the announced date up until March 31, 2014. 

For inquiries, send an email to highcottonproject@gmail.com

    or https://www.facebook.com/highcottonproject

 

Thank you,

 

David Booker Ogunde

DYNAMIC AFRICAReblogged from DYNAMIC AFRICA

dynamicafrica:

Early 20th century photographs of Ouled Nail Imazighen (Berber) women from North Africa - mainly Algeria, but some sources also mention Tunisia.

These women were said to be professional belly dancers who earned a living by travelling from town to town, putting on performances that are said to have some times involved nudity.

Ornamented in distinctive jewelry and make up, some times also having facial tattoos, these women stood out from many other women in North Africa who, during this time, were often veiled in public at all times.

Further reading.

AUGUST: Celebrating African Women

dynamicafrica:

A prominent politician and activist in Nyasaland, during the years leading up to Malawi’s independence, who organized women in the country to rally alongside their menfolk in the fight for their nation’s independence, Rose Lomathinda Chibambo is one of the symbols of Malawi’s women in the country’s independence struggle.
Rose Chibambo was the first woman to hold a senior position in the Nyasaland African Congress (NAC) serving as the party’s treasurer in 1953. Chibambo was also closely associated and collaborated with another prominent woman activist in the struggle, Vera Chirwa, who formed the Nyasaland African Women’s League and became the country’s first woman lawyer.
In 1959, Chibambo was arrested along with members of the Malawian Congress Party (MCP), a successor to the NAC, by British governor Robert Armitage. At this time, she was pregnant with her fifth child and was arrested shortly after she gave birth. Chibambo and the rest of the imprisoned MCP members were released in 1960, almost 12 months later.
Chibambo became the first woman minister under the country’s new cabinet in 1963 and served as the country’s Deputy Minister for Hospitals, Prisons and Social Welfare. However, after a falling out with President Hastings Banda, who she believed to have become increasingly autocratic with his policies and decision-making, in 1964 she went into exile fleeing to Zambia, only to return when the country became a multi-party democracy in 1994.
Prime Minister Bingu wa Mutharika honoured her in 2009, naming a street in Mzuzu City after her. In 2012 she was honoured again by the Malawian government and now features on the country’s 200 Kwacha banknote.
AUGUST: Celebrating African Women

DYNAMIC AFRICAReblogged from DYNAMIC AFRICA

dynamicafrica:

A prominent politician and activist in Nyasaland, during the years leading up to Malawi’s independence, who organized women in the country to rally alongside their menfolk in the fight for their nation’s independence, Rose Lomathinda Chibambo is one of the symbols of Malawi’s women in the country’s independence struggle.

Rose Chibambo was the first woman to hold a senior position in the Nyasaland African Congress (NAC) serving as the party’s treasurer in 1953. Chibambo was also closely associated and collaborated with another prominent woman activist in the struggle, Vera Chirwa, who formed the Nyasaland African Women’s League and became the country’s first woman lawyer.

In 1959, Chibambo was arrested along with members of the Malawian Congress Party (MCP), a successor to the NAC, by British governor Robert Armitage. At this time, she was pregnant with her fifth child and was arrested shortly after she gave birth. Chibambo and the rest of the imprisoned MCP members were released in 1960, almost 12 months later.

Chibambo became the first woman minister under the country’s new cabinet in 1963 and served as the country’s Deputy Minister for Hospitals, Prisons and Social Welfare. However, after a falling out with President Hastings Banda, who she believed to have become increasingly autocratic with his policies and decision-making, in 1964 she went into exile fleeing to Zambia, only to return when the country became a multi-party democracy in 1994.

Prime Minister Bingu wa Mutharika honoured her in 2009, naming a street in Mzuzu City after her. In 2012 she was honoured again by the Malawian government and now features on the country’s 200 Kwacha banknote.

AUGUST: Celebrating African Women

fattysaid:

ancientart:

The statue of Ramesses the Great at the Temple of Abu Simbel in the process of being reassembled after needing to be relocated in 1976 to save it from the rising waters of the Nile. This structure was originally built under Pharaoh Ramesses II in the 13th century BCE.
Here’s a quick video made by UNESCO which gives some further information about the site.
Image via Wiki Commons.

For those with little knowledge of the historical context behind the above image, this story will no doubt sound fascinating. However, what you may not be aware of is the horrendous events that accompanied the relocation of the statue of Ramesses the Great and the temples surrounding it. More than 60 years ago, a military coup brought Gamal Abdel Nasser into power. Shortly after, the Colonel ordered the construction of a High Dam at Aswan to generate power, and regulate the seasonal flooding of the Nile. It was to be his signature national project.
The Aswan dam is remembered by most Egyptians as one of the former leader’s greatest accomplishments, a towering monument to the modernizing aspirations of an independent nation. But, for many Nubians living in the Upper Egyptian governorate of Aswan, the dam destroyed a way of life.
Compulsory immigration of Nubians started in 1902 when construction of the Aswan reservoir flooded more than 44 villages that were home to Egypt’s Nubians living in the area now known as old Nubia. When construction of the Aswan High Dam started in 1963, more than 60,000 Nubians were forced out of their homes to live in arid, desert lands north of Aswan away from the only life they knew. There was a much greater uproar over the Abu Simbel temples and other monuments of Pharaonic Egypt endangered by the dam’s encroaching reservoir than over the 600 or so Nubian villages being obliterated. Whilst the temples and the Ramesses statue were moved piece by piece to higher ground, the world paid no notice to the displacement of the Nubians and their plight. Till this day, they have received no compensation.


Nubians have lived in Egypt for thousands of years and they have played a huge part in shaping its history and culture. Nubian Egypt, which stretches about 200 miles from the Sudanese border north to the city of Aswan, still carries with it distinct customs and a language that is close to becoming extinct. Most Nubians say that political leaders have failed them, never properly offering compensation for their lost land, let alone recognition of their existence in Egypt. Many complain of systemic discrimination at the hands of Arabs who’ve denied them jobs and government posts in the region, relegating them to a mere servant class. They’ve been continuously ignored, discriminated against and neglected. When will we stop overlooking the great contributions that Nubians have made and still make in Egypt? When will we begin to recognise and indeed, accept them as an integral and valuable part of Egyptian society? When will they be compensated?
Photo: Partly submerged palms above Nile dam. The first Aswan dam completed in 1902 submerged parts of Egyptian Nubia. The Aswan High Dam, completed in 1971, flooded Nubian land along 500 kilometres of the Nile. Groves of date palms and 45 Nubian villages disappeared underwater. (Stereo-Travel Co., date 1908/Brooklyn Museum Archives.)

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ANCIENT ARTReblogged from ANCIENT ART

fattysaid:

ancientart:

The statue of Ramesses the Great at the Temple of Abu Simbel in the process of being reassembled after needing to be relocated in 1976 to save it from the rising waters of the Nile. This structure was originally built under Pharaoh Ramesses II in the 13th century BCE.

Here’s a quick video made by UNESCO which gives some further information about the site.

Image via Wiki Commons.

For those with little knowledge of the historical context behind the above image, this story will no doubt sound fascinating. However, what you may not be aware of is the horrendous events that accompanied the relocation of the statue of Ramesses the Great and the temples surrounding it. More than 60 years ago, a military coup brought Gamal Abdel Nasser into power. Shortly after, the Colonel ordered the construction of a High Dam at Aswan to generate power, and regulate the seasonal flooding of the Nile. It was to be his signature national project.

The Aswan dam is remembered by most Egyptians as one of the former leader’s greatest accomplishments, a towering monument to the modernizing aspirations of an independent nation. But, for many Nubians living in the Upper Egyptian governorate of Aswan, the dam destroyed a way of life.

Compulsory immigration of Nubians started in 1902 when construction of the Aswan reservoir flooded more than 44 villages that were home to Egypt’s Nubians living in the area now known as old Nubia. When construction of the Aswan High Dam started in 1963, more than 60,000 Nubians were forced out of their homes to live in arid, desert lands north of Aswan away from the only life they knew. There was a much greater uproar over the Abu Simbel temples and other monuments of Pharaonic Egypt endangered by the dam’s encroaching reservoir than over the 600 or so Nubian villages being obliterated. Whilst the temples and the Ramesses statue were moved piece by piece to higher ground, the world paid no notice to the displacement of the Nubians and their plight. Till this day, they have received no compensation.

Partly submerged palms above Nile dam

Nubians have lived in Egypt for thousands of years and they have played a huge part in shaping its history and culture. Nubian Egypt, which stretches about 200 miles from the Sudanese border north to the city of Aswan, still carries with it distinct customs and a language that is close to becoming extinct. Most Nubians say that political leaders have failed them, never properly offering compensation for their lost land, let alone recognition of their existence in Egypt. Many complain of systemic discrimination at the hands of Arabs who’ve denied them jobs and government posts in the region, relegating them to a mere servant class. They’ve been continuously ignored, discriminated against and neglected. When will we stop overlooking the great contributions that Nubians have made and still make in Egypt? When will we begin to recognise and indeed, accept them as an integral and valuable part of Egyptian society? When will they be compensated?

Photo: Partly submerged palms above Nile dam. The first Aswan dam completed in 1902 submerged parts of Egyptian Nubia. The Aswan High Dam, completed in 1971, flooded Nubian land along 500 kilometres of the Nile. Groves of date palms and 45 Nubian villages disappeared underwater. (Stereo-Travel Co., date 1908/Brooklyn Museum Archives.)

(via dynamicafrica)

Source commons.wikimedia.org